Tuesday, September 11, 2018

TFBT: Christine Downing

I religiously attend the monthly used book sale at the local library.  Not too many scholarly tomes on Greek Mythology, but occasionally...  More commonly I pick up books in some way related to my favorite obsession.  Recently I found The Book of the Goddess; Past and Present, Editor Carl Olson.  Many of the articles in the middle of the book I found interesting.  The article that sang to me to me the most was The Mother Goddess among the Greeks by Christine R. Downing.
The focus of Downing’s work is on Gaia, of course, and her grand-daughters and great grand-daughters.  Downing’s resume is not the norm for my reading and she presses her argument too hard sometimes.  The piece is little referenced and, like me, assumes the reader is well read.  All that said, I find some of her insight concise and clearer than other authors.  I intend to read, “Gods in Our Midst”
A few quotes to consider;
“Tartarus is Gaia’s within-ness, Gaia is Tartarus’ self-externalization.”
“The others (primordial gods) are supplanted  Ouranos by Zeus, Pontus by Poseidon. She is not; indeed, she participates in the supplantation.”
In these goddesses (Metis, Leto, Artemis, Athena, Hestia, Aphrodite, Hera, Hebe, Eileithyia Demeter)  the Greeks represented in divine proportions the mother who abandons her children or holds them too tight, the mother who uses her children as agents to her marital struggles or to fulfill her own frustrated ambitions.” For example;
  • “Of the major Olympian goddesses only Artemis had a mother – a mother; who she seems to have mothered from almost the moment  of her own birth.  The new-born daughter immediately sets about assisting with the delivery of her twin brother Apollo and on many other occasions rescues Leto from insult or danger.”
  • Demeter’s boundless love for her daughter, Persephone seems at first glance to represent an idealized version of maternal devotion-yet a closer reading suggests it may be her overinvestment in her child that makes Persephone’s adduction by Hades a necessary denouement.”  As proven by Gaia’s involvement in the abduction as mentioned in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter.

All and all a good short read if you are well read and know discretion.  

Monday, September 3, 2018


Years ago I was a member of the Petersburg Volunteer Fire Department.  I remember some big fires downtown where everyone in the department was on the fireline for days.  Here the community jumped out to help move hoses when asked and then stepped back from the scene until their help was asked for again.  (The new police chief from down south was shocked that there was no need for crowd control.)

 I remember stopping at the fire hall during those events to change out of my soaked bunker gear into something drier.  On the tables were enormous bowls of finger food and civilians feverishly refilling air tanks so we could stay on scene.

I remember working with Search and Rescue.  I was hiking home from Hammer Slough.  At that moment many people in the department and many in the community were doing the same.  My bibs and boots were covered in that slick brown mud.  My wife met me at the front door with the biggest beaming smile. She’d heard the news: we’d found the toddler.

And I worked with the Emergency Medical Technicians in so many capacities over the years: flying them out to patients too close to death to move, hoisting them over our heads to get them into the back seat of the helicopter with their patient and send them into town; holding the fire hose on the EMTs while they stabilized a patient in a wrecked car reeking of electrical fire; of them working on a fellow firefighter who had collapsed during one of those big downtown fires. But, the EMTs weren’t on their own the doctors and nurses in the community along with a dentist, as I recall, came to help those nights too.

We had, still have and are part of a great emergency services team.  I couldn’t be prouder or feel luckier to live here and be part of it.

Saturday, September 1, 2018

TFBT: Quotes for August

"For the gods are stronger than men." iliad 21.264

"The twin sons of Thracian Boreas came darting from the sky." Argonautica of AR

"People for whom written records play a small part or no part at all and with whom the scientific study of history is undeveloped...delight in factual information for its own sake." M L West

"Echecratides of Larisa dedicated the small Apollo, said by the Delphians to have been the very first offering to be set up." Pausanias 10.17.8

"Achilles is constrained by the social superiority of Agamemnon in offering no physical resistance to the taking of the young woman Briseis, his war prize, by the inferior hero."

Peleus in the Argonautica “For it is not I who will flinch, since the bitterest pain will be but death.”

Argonautica; “stood at the entrance, marvelling at the king's courts...“silently they crossed the threshold.”  “And quickly beneath the lintel in the porch he (Eros)strung his bow and took from the quiver an arrow unshot before, messenger of pain. And with swift feet unmarked he passed the threshold an” “645-673) She spake, and rising from her bed opened the door of her chamber, bare-footed, clad in one robe; and verily she desired to go to her sister, and crossed the threshold. And for long she stayed there at the entrance of her chamber,”

MLWest see a correlation between The Hesiodic Catalogue of Women and the parade of women Odysseus sees in Hades.  (Page 33)

One of them, (the ten lepers) when he saw he was healed, came back, praising God in a loud voice. He threw himself at Jesus’ feet and thanked him—and he was a Samaritan.  Jesus asked, “Were not all ten cleansed? Where are the other nine? Has no one returned to give praise to God except this foreigner?” Then he said to him, “Rise and go; your faith has made you well.”  Luke 17:15-19. In my life it is more like one in six.  

“ the narrative continues until the catastrophe that ended the Heroic Age” mlw

undocumented feature; a glitch in the new software. Ktina Hill

ML West translates “maia” as Nana

Demophron, isn’t that the male version of Demeter’s name ?

CARMEN NAUPACTIUM T ESTIMONIUM. #7  flee from the Hall swift thru the dark night

“Romans and other ancient nations pretended that they were the children of the gods, to draw a veil over their actual ancestors who were doubtless robbers” Giacomo Casanova

“Beware of the man of one book.” Casanova

Sent from my iPad

Sent from my iPad

Sunday, August 19, 2018

TFBT: West's Hesiodic Catalogue

I am re-reading M.L. West’s The Hesiodic Catalogue of Women.  This must be a really good book because I just finished it and started all over again.  In case you are wondering about the title; Hesiod composed a sequel to the Theogony.  It is called The Catalogue of Women.  There is no intact copy of this five volume work by Hesiod.  There are many fragments, which West has tried to arrange in the correct order.   

Hermione’s Birth

Today I was reading West comments about the finale of this work;

“Menelaus is born; Helen is born (unexpectedly1 ); everyone needed for the Trojan War is born…Menelaus got Helen, and she bore Hermione…The moment Hermione’s birth has been registered, there is an abrupt switch to the gods.  They were riven with dissension because of Zeus’ great plan to stir up a war, destroy large numbers of men and remove the sons of the gods to live apart in the paradise conditions they had enjoyed in the beginning.”

The fatal Oath of Tyndareus and the abduction of Helen, which would ignite the war, were separated by six plus year. I always assumed this was because; Homer/Zeus was waiting for Achilles to be old enough to enter the war or the sudden and coincidental death of Menelaus’ grandfather was the first chance Homer/Zeus had to arrange a romance. But this fragment (204.94ff) suggests that Hermione’s birth suddenly triggered Zeus’ Plan.  Why did Hermione’s birth stir up dissension? 

A Fundamental Change in the Conditions of Life

What follows are his comments about Book 5.201 (Fragment 240.95). 

“What follows is astonishing.  So far as we can understand it, it describes not the abduction of Helen and the consequent outbreak of the war, but a fundamental change in the condition of life.  Man was no longer to enjoy the easy abundance of hitherto.  He was to be forced to sail about the seas, to adopt a trading economy, Apollo observed with pleasure as people busied themselves to keep their children from starvation…Gales blew from the north, bending the forest and bringing down their leaves and fruits, making the seas crash on the shore with terrifying force, wearing down human strength and devastates the growing crops.”    

I have found no copy of Fragment 204 anywhere except for the discussion of Hermione’s Birth in Gonzalez’s article.  But, I think we can rely on West’s summary here.  Mythologically speaking we can blame the Theban and Trojan War for the “historical” Bronze Age Collapse and Hellenic Dark Ages.  But is Hesiod introducing a mini ice-age here? 

I will have to revisit an excellent lecture; 1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed (Eric Cline, PhD) 


1 Gonzalez says Hermione’s birth was “unexpected” whereas West tosses the word “abrupt” into the telling of the tale.  "Catalogue of Women" and the End of the Heroic Age (Hesiod fr. 204.94-103 M-W)  



Wednesday, August 8, 2018

TFBT: Random Notes on Argonautica by Apollonius of Rhodes.

Over at the Kosmos Society  we’ve been studying the Argonautica by Apollonius of Rhodes.   Here are my random notes;

Why Orpheus first in the catalogue of the Argonauts? Any significance to who comes next in the catalogue? West suggests that most epic catalogues spiral out from the initial location of the tale.

I find it interesting that seven of the heroes were “sent” on this quest;
  • ·      Actor sent his son Menoetius”,
  • ·      “Canthus eager for the quest, whom Canethus son of Abas sent”,
  • ·      “Phalerus of the ashen spear. Alcon his father sent him forth;”,
  • ·      “146-150) Moreover Aetolian Leda sent from Sparta strong Polydeuces and Castor”,
  • ·      “Ancaeus followed them as the third, whom his father Lycurgus sent,”
  • ·      “Laocoon the brother of Oeneus, Oeneus sent to guard his son: thus Meleagrus,”

“Theseus, who surpassed all the sons of Erechtheus, an unseen bond kept beneath the land of Taenarus, for he had “followed that path with Peirithous; assuredly both would have lightened for all the fulfilment of their toil.” I wondered what this line was all about, but our discussion of Heracles cameo it makes sense. AR is explaining why Theseus was not on the boat. He was still stuck on that bench in Hades waiting for Heracles to rescue him. If he had been on the boat than the epic would have been him instead of Jason, so AR had to write him out of the story. With Theseus in Hades Castor and Polydeuces could rescue Helen in Athens and then join the expedition.

“185-189) Yea, and two other sons of Poseidon came; one Erginus, who left the citadel of glorious Miletus, the other proud Ancaeus, who left Parthenia, the seat of Imbrasion Hera” Per Maicar;  Parthenia is an old name for Samos . Joan V. O’Brien in The Transformation of Hera theorizes that prior to being summoned to Olympus by Hesiod and Homer, Hera was the local goddess on Samos and wedded wife of the river-god Imbrasus.

no woe will be fatal, no venture will be unachieved, while Idas follows, even though a god should oppose thee. Such a helpmeet am I that thou bringest from Arene.”(ll. 472-475) He spake, and holding a brimming goblet in both hands drank off the unmixed sweet wine; and his lips and dark cheeks were drenched with it; and all the heroes clamoured together and Idmon spoke out openly: (ll. 480-484) “Vain wretch, thou art devising destruction for thyself before the time. Does the pure wine cause thy bold heart to swell in thy breast to thy ruin, and has it set thee on to dishonour the gods?” This is Idas, strongest man in the world after Heracles. If I recall correctly he would have beat Apollo to a pulp if Zeus hadn’t intervened. He has a bit of an attitude and I am sure his fiancée and future sister-in-law didn’t mind being abducted by the sons of Leda

Glaucus the wise interpreter of divine Nereus” was once mortal. As was Leucothea who rose from the sea to speak to Odysseus in his epic.

“On that day all the gods looked down from heaven upon the ship and the might of the heroes, half-divine, the bravest of men then sailing the sea;” I only four count for demi-gods.

What is the significance of the mantle Jason wore on Lesbos;
  • ·      Cyclopses making lightning bolt.
  • ·      Amphion and Zethusbuilding the walls of Thebes.
  • ·      Aphrodite as an Amazon.
  • ·      sons of Electryon were fighting; Taphian raider”.
  • ·      Pelops chariot race.
  • ·      Apollo as a stripling shooting a giant.
  • ·      Phrixus talking to the ram. (Ends up the winged ram that rescued him recommended that Phrixus sacrifice him.)

Really? Heracles turned prudish and passed on the maidens of Lesbos? He bedded Echidna! He was the one that convinced the others to leave this golden age existence?

“by command of Orpheus the youths trod a measure dancing in full armour, and clashed with their swords on their shields, so that the ill-omened cry might be lost in the air the wail which the people were still sending up in grief for their king.” Like the corresponding Curetes dancing about the crying Baby Zeus.

“And a fierce quarrel fell upon them, and violent tumult, for that they had sailed and left behind the bravest of their comrades. And Aeson’s son, bewildered by their hapless plight, said never a word, good or bad; but sat with his heavy load of grief, eating out his heart.” Some leader! Didn’t notice three of his men were missing? Heracles would be hard-to miss. And how come all the seers and helmsman had to make all the decisions?  My friend Helen says this is a new kind of hero, a Hellenistic hero in a democratic city.

“1332-1335) “Son of Aeson, be not wroth with me, if in my folly I have erred, for grief wrought upon me to utter a word arrogant and intolerable. But let me give my fault to the winds and let our hearts be joined as before.” Now that’s how you apologize!

AR says Amycaus “seemed to be a monstrous son of baleful Typhoeus”. None of Typhon’s children were theomorphic. All were hybrids or animals.

 “Aea; a huntress who was metamorphosed by the gods into the fabulous island bearing the same name in order to rescue her from the pursuit of Phasis, the river god.” (Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology)  Aea is also the name of the capital of Colchis. This is the distant and mysterious land where King Aeetes and his daughter Medea lived. It is near here that Aeetes’ father Helios rested each morning on his couch before the sun-god and his sister Eos, the Dawn launch into the sky. In “The East Face of Helicon” M.LWest (1997) argues Aea was tied to the Akkadian dawn goddess Aya. “It seems impossible to separate this Aea from the name of the Babylonian goddess Aya, who is the Sun-god’s wife and the goddess of sexual love” (p. 407). (Thanks to Jason Colavito for this insight.)

Start of Book Three; Enter the Olympians!

“36-51) So she said, and starting forth they came to the mighty palace of Cypris, which her husband, the halt-footed god, had built for her when first he brought her from Zeus to be his wife.”  So, sometime between the arrival of the Argo at Colchis and the final year of the Trojan War, Hephaestus caught his wife and Ares in the net got the marriage annulled and married a Grace.
for she is full of many wiles.” Doesn’t disaster always follow when someone is described this way? 

“they were playing for golden dice, as boys in one house are wont to do.”When young Patroclus kills the son of Amphidamas over a dice game, Menoetius whisked the boy off to Peleus in Phthia to be educated with his cousin Achilles. (Hom. Il. 23.85) In Norse mythology after the Fire Giants destroy what is left from the universe, from the boiling sea arises Balder’s estate with Hod, a handful of gods and the innocents who had hidden in his forested lands. The game of dice, with which the gods played in their youth while they were yet free from care, is found again among the flowers on the new earth. Some other quotes;
  • ·      “Mars rolls his iron dice, and if they turn up snake eyes he sends a pair of nations to war.” Steven Pinker http://t.co/29oNJ39how.
  • ·      Advice from Hades, “Don’t bet your future on the roll of the dice.” http://t.co/6VYeV0AAjr

“Eidyia his wedded wife, the youngest daughter of Tethys and Oceanus.”Is the fact that she is the last of the 3000 daughters an indicator that the age of the gods is over and the veil will be pulled between men and gods soon? 

Medea then [they found] going from chamber to chamber in search of her sister, for Hera detained her within that day.” That time of the month?

 Eros’ reluctance to do his duty seems similar to Lyssa’s reluctance make Heracles slaying children at Hera’s command. (Euripides, Heracles 815) Aphrodite and hence her children and the elder Eros are outside the dispensation at Mecone. Maybe the goddesses really do need to beg this favor.

 Aeetes “angered most of all with the son of Chalciope”. This is his grandson and second in line to the throne

Medea calling on Hecate. How come all of Hecate’s stories are someone else’s; Jason and Medea, Zeus gathering allies, Hesiod’s praise, HH to Demeter. She never gets to be the star of her own myth. 

thou then, hero son of Aeson, art minded to yoke Aeetes’ oxen, and art eager for the toil,” Yoking and plowing was the bride price for Admetus’ wife. This is the ritual act that ignited the Theban wars. In Ancient Greek aren’t toil and battle the same word? 

“Once he had heard a baleful prophecy from his father Helios, that he must avoid the secret treachery and schemes of his own offspring and their crafty mischief. Wherefore he was sending them, as they desired, to the Achaean land at the bidding of their father—a long journey. Nor had he ever so slight a fear of his daughters, that they would form some hateful scheme, nor of his son Apsyrtus; but this curse was being fulfilled in the children of Chalciope.” Oops! Misinterpreted that prophecy!

At this point I stopped reading thanks to the wise advice of my wise friend Maya.  Maya once said, “Bill, just because we are having a Book Club, doesn’t mean you have to read the book and just because we are reading a book, doesn’t mean you have to like it.”  Thanks Maya.

Monday, July 16, 2018

TFBT: West’s Hesiodic Catalogue of Women

I have been pondering the “epic” of Nestor. It should include the cosmic battle between gods and men that destroyed sandy Pylos and decimated the royal family, young king Nestor ‘s desperate effort to save the remnant of his people, the war with the Moloines and battles with the Centaurs & Amazons.  As I poked around sources on the issue, I kept seeing references to “an Aetolian-Elean-Pylian cycle” with praise for M.L. West research on it.  His research can be found in  “The Hesiodic Catalogue of Women;  Its Nature, Structure and Origins” 1985

Hesiod is credited with writing a poem about mortal women who slept with immortal gods. They are the ancestresses of the royal families of Ancient Greece.  Alas the “Catalogue of Women” is lost and only fragments remain. West has done a brilliant and convincing job of aligning the fragments, extrapolating what was missing and reconstructing Hesiod’s lost masterpiece; its nature, structure and origins.  This is a wonderful and well written book!  

In untangling the fragments of cascading genealogical material he began to see clusters of stories and insights. We are familiar with two such clusters of myths; (4) The Trojan Cycle and (3) The Theban Wars.  He postulates two more (an Aetolian-Elean-Pylian cycle”1) An Iolkos cycle and (2) an Aetolian-Elean-Pylian cycle.  Each with their own style and motivation.  

What I present here I hope is enough to entice you get a copy of the book yourself to better understand the concept of the 4 Cycles.  I also include some random notes I hope you will find interesting

West suggests the Greek myths fall more or less into 4 great story cycles;
An Iolkos cycle, comprising the sory of Pelias, Jason, th Argo’s voayae, the Funral Games for Pelias, the sack of Iolkos by Peleus and the deeds of Achilles

An Aetolian-Elean-Pylian cycle, telling of Oineus’ slaughter of the sons of Prothaon, the Calydonian Boar Hunt, the war of the Kourets and Aetolians, the story of Meleagros, Heracles meeting with Meleagros I Hades and his subsequnt marriage to Deianeira, the sack of Oichalia and the war of the Pylians and Epeio.

A Theban Cycle, centring on the quarrel of Oedipus’ sons and the attacks on Thebes by the Seven and the Epigonoi.

A Troy Cycle, telling of the abduction of Helen, the gathering of a great army at Aulis the war at Troy, the murder of Agemon and Orestes’ revenge and other stories of the heroes homecomig. “

the Aetolian and Elean kings were traced back to Aethlios” (page 141 and 174)

There seems that the sons of Demodike (daughter of Agenor) represent the peoples of the Pylian Cycle.  The boys are Evenus, Molos, Pylos and Thestios.  West refers to Molos’ grandsons (the Siamese twins that Nestor battled in his youth)  as “monstrous” and equates them with the giant Aloadi.  (pages 62, 63

We know that the Theban cycle was established before the Iliad and before Hesiod.”  (page 154)  West’s argument here is based on votive offerings.
Random Notes

"One recurring pattern which may have struck the reader is that of an  archetype-figure who has three sons standing for major divisions in the populations.” (page 27)

"The moment (Menelaus and Helen's daughter) Hermoine’s birth has been there registered there is an abrupt switch to the gods.They are riven with dissension because of Zeus’ great plan to stir up a war, destroy large numbers of men and to remove the sons of gods to live apart in the paradise conditions they had enjoyed in the beginning. What follows is astounding as far as we can follow it, it describes not the abduction of Helen and the conseqent outbreak of war, but a fundamental change in the conditions of life.  Man was no longer to enjoy the easy abundance of hitherto. He was to be forced to sail about the sea, to adopt a trade economy (page 119 on fragment 5.201)

"Besides begetting children in the customary way, Deucalion created a tribe of men by throwing stones Zeus put in his way. These were the Leleges."  52

West discussing the word "Hellenes"  says "Hellenes in this context do not represent the Greek nation as distinct from barbarian, but the Hellenes of  Iliad 2.684 who live in Phthia and the north shore of the gulf of Malis" (page 53)

"Hellen's wife is...a nymph of Mount Othrys." (page 57)  I find this interesting because this peak was the fortress of the Titans during the ten year Titanomachy

In the course of reading ML West it occurs to  me that the gods the turning mortals into birds pre-empts the penalty the Erinyes will enforce.

West is great at explaining every hero’s eponymic name or which town she or he founded.

Speaking of Hesiod “This is not to say that he (Hesiod) was never aware of chronological difficutlites.  In Fragment 141.20 he may have said that Zeus allowed Sarpedon to live for three gnerations.  Just what is needd to reconcile his pesence at troy with that of Minos’ grandson Idomeneus, since Minos and Sarpedon have been presented as brothers. “ (page 122)

The (Iliadic?) Catalogue of Ships …starts from Boeotia where the expedition assembled and proceeds at first in a spiral, Phocis, Locris, Euboiea, Attica, Salamis Peloponnese, Kephallena Aetolia, then Crete, Rhodes, etc., then norther Greece.   The (Hesiodic ) Catalogue of  (Helen’s) Suitors to judge by the incomplete remains, began from the the Peloponnese where Tyndareos lived and again sprialled clockwise to the west, (the same as Il 2.631ff) and north and down to Athens.  In Homer Aias follows Menestheus immediately, but here two engries intervened, Salamis was followed by the larger islands, Euboea and Crete.” (page 117) “J.Schwartz indeed suggests that the catalogedaughter of Kleisthenes)” (page 133)

The Graikoi are perhaps to be located in the west, around or beyond (the River) Pindus.  It was presumably their prominence in Epirus at one time that led to their name being estabisihed in Latin for “Greeks” generally." (page 54)

Why are Nelus and Pilias made twins, when they live at opposite ends of Greece, belonn gto different saga cyles and never hanything to do with one another?  The explanation must have something to with the fact the Poseidon made love to their mother in the water of th Enipeus (River).  There is an Enipeus right beside Salmone in Pisatis and another in Thesssaly (but close to Iolkos.)” (page 142)

A vagrant cow led Kadmos to the site of Thebes and a vagrant bull led Europed quiete astray.” 146

Most of the descendants of Lacedaion, son of Zeus and the mountain nymph Taygete had nothing to do with the Trojan War. “ (page 156)

There is some reason to think that this patient porter of the earth and sky (Atlas) was once a Peloponnesian mountain god. “
it is significant that the patronymic Aeacides, which occurs over two dozen times in the Homeric poems, always refers to Peleus or Achilles, never to Aias.” (page 162)

In the Arcadian genealogy, that is the descendants of Callisto and Zeus, “There are no unions between gods and mortal women.” (page 154)

Tuesday, July 3, 2018

TFBT: The Glory of Your Time-hallowed Honor

"Oceanus addresses the chained Titan Prometheus “Now the whole earth cries aloud in lamentation . . . lament the greatness of the glory of your time-hallowed honor, the honor that was yours and your brothers’.” (Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 407-410) 
What was so great about the Iapetides?  Hesiod lists, stout-hearted Atlas, glorious Menoetius, sly Prometheus and scatter-brained Epimetheus.  The last brother’s   epithet is not great, glorious or honoring.  Let’s see what we know about them; 

  • Atlas was leader of the revolting Titans.  (Hyginus, Fabulae 150)  Apparently he “discovered” or invented astronomy (Suidas). Atsma says, “He personified the quality of endurance (atlaô).”
  • Menoitios was outrageous (hybristes), and far-seeing Zeus struck him with a lurid thunderbolt and sent him down to Erebos (Erebus) because of his mad presumption and exceeding pride." (Hesiod, Theogony)  Atsma suggests that Menoitios’ duties in the Underworld was herding Hades cattle.
  • Prometheus famously created man, stole fire and betrayed Atlas during the Titanomachy. Apparently he also discovered scholarly philosophy. (Suida)
  • Epimetheus wed Pandora as we all know.  He discovered music according to Suida;  Aesop gives him credit for creating animals. 

To better understand Prometheus and his brother, we need to better understand their father Iapetus and his own brothers.  Atsma says of the previous generation of Titans

“Iapetus and his three brothers (Hyperion, Coios, and Crius) probably represent the four pillars of the cosmos which are described in Near-Eastern cosmogonies holding heaven and earth apart. Iapetos himself would have been the pillar of the west, a position later held by his son Atlas.”  

Atsma figures a primordial cosmology with the four named brothers above on the cardinal points, Cronus in the center and Oceanus circling outside this world.  My own assumption that the replacement of Iapetus by Atlas next to the mountains named for him, corresponds to Prometheus bound to the Causcas’ in a position just made for the fallen Hyperion.   Astma says “Koios' alternate name, Polos (of the northern pole), suggests he was the Titan of the pillar of the north.” Which of the Iapetides in the following generation took his roll I cannot say.